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[综合] SuperMemo无用论(英文版)

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    2018-7-1 11:50
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    [LV.6]常住居民II

    舍得 发表于 2011-4-5 16:11:35 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
    SuperMemo is      useless!

    舍得按:
    这是SuperMemo官网上的一篇文章,因为SuperMemo World经常会收到用户抱怨说SuperMemo没啥用,就把这些邮件一一罗列出来,然后对其中的错误观点进行一一指正,看下去,很有意思。


    SuperMemo is often seen as a program for cramming foreign language      vocabulary without wider perspectives in fields requiring creativity,      problems solving, artistry, etc. Quite a few people involved in selling or      developing SuperMemo courseware and software do not belong to the circle of      users (including SuperMemo World\'s own employees). This article looks for the      reasons

    If you believe SuperMemo is useless (at leastbeyond learning vocabulary), you are notalone. Please have a look at the following e-mail. It was received at SuperMemoWorld on January 25, 2000 and seems quite representative. Many people sharesimilar opinions about SuperMemo:
    • Your program is useless. In today\'s world, information    is so abundant and can be accessed so readily that it is hardly necessary to    lumber one\'s memory with it. Tell me: What\'s the difference between persons    A and B? Person A can recall thousands of facts in 5 seconds. Person B can    look up those facts in 30 seconds. Clearly, person B is more effective,    because he/she hasn\'t invested 30 minutes every day in appending the facts    and then repeating them.
    • Your program is useless. You claim it makes one memorize    95 percent of the stored knowledge. That means one doesn\'t remember 1 item    in 20! Given the time cost of using your program, and the psychological    barriers one has to overcome (e.g. forcing oneself to do repetitions every    day), the effectiveness you offer is not worth it.
    • Your program is useless. Being successful is not about    knowing all the answers. Rather, it\'s about the ability to ask the right    questions. Your program has nothing to do with that.
    • Your program is useless. People lead highly successful    lives without it, because the brain is impressively good at remembering    knowledge which is important to us or knowledge we use frequently - in    short, knowledge we really need. SuperMemo may be good for memorizing a    bunch of useless trivia to show off in front of other people.
    Do you share similar convictions?
    Please note:
    • this text has been pasted literally from a customer\'s e-mail without abbreviations warts and all
    • it was written by a person with a    remarkably high IQ (150 falls right above Einstein -- although still below    Sharon Stone)
    • it was written by a soon-to-be graduate of a prestigious university
    • it was not    written by a prejudiced bystander. It was written by a long-term user of SuperMemo 6 for DOS!
    • later we will refer to the above e-mail as    \"SuperMemo is useless\" e-mail and refer to its author as SuperMemo    Critic
    SuperMemoWorld\'s opinion: \"SuperMemo is useless\" e-mail bolsters the Socratic maxim: All troubles come fromignorance. The usefulness of SuperMemo is so obvious that one might argue,we should not spent time contesting this e-mail. However, there are manypeople who would share the convictions of SuperMemo Critic and our mission is and must be towork on changing similar misconceptions!
    This article is intended to point out errors in\"SuperMemo is useless\" and as such also demonstrate that the greatest barrier onthe way towards the widespread use of SuperMemo is the difficulty in overcomingprejudicial convictions of which many are deeply entrenched in tradition of manycultures. If you disagree, please feel free to voice your opinions on SuperMemoForum or in SuperMemopedia.
    The official rejoinder below is divided intothe following sections:
    Common senserefutation
    Let us first contest individual points of \"SuperMemois useless\" e-mail using common sense examples. Later, using more strict reasoning,we will point out well-known concepts of science that falsify all four quotedpoints
       
    The main thesis of this article:  
            
    Had the author of \"SuperMemo isuseless\" known some facts and rules of science, he would have never come upwith the idea that SuperMemo is useless
            
          
      
    Point 1 - Memorization is not needed
      Is it true that we do not need memorization?  With constant improvement in access to knowledge, we can obtain answers to  important questions with ever increasing easiness
      False!
      
       
    • If this were true, we could travel around        the world without learning languages. After all, finding out words in a        dictionary takes mere seconds
    • If this were true, students of medicine        would not need to cram details of human anatomy and physiology. Instead        they would learn to use state-of-the-art expert systems with all answers        built in. If you asked: What\'s up doc? You will hear: I have        no idea but wait ... I will check it out on my computer
    • If this were true, all exams such as SAT,        GRE, TEOFL, FCE, GCSE, USMLE, etc. would be a great waste of human time        and resources. Students should rather come to exams with their link to        the web and figure out answers ad hoc. Or they would just read out relevant        paragraphs from a textbook
    • If this were true, nobody should poke fun        at George Bush Jr. for his lack of knowledge of the heads of state of        Chechnya, Taiwan or Pakistan. After all, he can find those names in        seconds on his palmtop. If using external storage was permissible,        nobody should blame        George W. for mixing        up Slovakia with Slovenia, or refer to Kosovars as Kosovarians, East        Timorese as East Timorians, or Greeks as Grecians (NB: the word Greciansis considered correct too)
    • If this were true, you could be a rocket        scientist at NASA tomorrow! After all, rocket scientists follow        well-know rules written in well-know manuals organized in a very        well-know manner. If you need to plot the trajectory for Galileo to beam        images of Europa back to Earth ... no problem ... take the Advanced        Calculus textbook, figure it out, and send your billion dollar        mission on course
    • Last but not least: Two ideas do not come together to produce        a great invention unless they sit in the same head. They either have to        be called up at the same time or one has to come unexpectedly from the        outside:
      • Archimedes stepped into a bath and            immediately associated the fact with all he knew about weight and            buoyancy. Thousands of Greeks at his time failed to make the link.            This was not solely because of their less lively minds. It was mostly            because of their lack of understanding of hydrostatics
      • Isaac Newton is said to have been hit by an apple            that produced an immediate use of his knowledge of physics and mathematics to            enhance his three famous laws of motion published in Principia by            the laws of gravity
      • James Watt is rumored to have watched a kettle boil            to combine this inspiration with his knowledge of            engineering to improve upon a Newcomen\'s steam engine. This            association changed the            industry upside down in the course of the hundred years that            followed
               SuperMemo can help you be        creative not only by combining various pieces of knowledge in your mind.        It can help you generate new ideas while making repetitions! Genius        associations do not come from the mere existence of two pieces of        knowledge in your brain. Those two pieces of knowledge have to light up        at the same time. Only this way can your brain make a connection.        Strangely, a repetition related to genetically modified tomato can light        up memories related to tomato juice, cucumbers, genetic disorders,        take-home dinner, flu or even the silent Mars Polar Lander. If your collection        combines knowledge pertaining to different subject domains, the stream        of new ideas and unexpected associations coming to your mind may surprise you!
              The advantage of keeping knowledge in        your head as compared to keeping it in external sources can        metaphorically be compared to the advantage of going from primary        through secondary to university education as opposed to getting a        week-long course on digging info from external sources. Nearly all        parents seem to prefer to choose the former for their kids
      
    Point 2 - Remembering 95% of knowledge stillleaves 5% forgotten which is not worth the cost of repetitions
      Is it true that SuperMemo makes us pay too much  for knowledge?
      False!
      
       
    • SuperMemo gives you a choice to determine        how much you are ready for pay for knowledge and how much knowledge you        want to keep in your mind. If 95% is too little, you can increase the forgetting        index. If 95% cost you too much work, you can decrease the        forgetting index. You can decrease it so much that you will hit the        level of maximum speed of knowledge per time cost! If SuperMemo        were dumb enough, it would even let you decrease it further so that your        retention would drop down to the level you normally reach in learning        without SuperMemo!
    • The complaint on the loss of precious 5%        of knowledge stands in contrast with Point 1 from which we might        conclude that 5% is not a big deal if it can be accessed in 30 seconds        from external sources
    • It is enough to ask any user of SuperMemo        who has passed TOEFL or GRE: Were hours of repetitions worth the        resulting knowledge? All those who have previously invested weeks and        months or even years into language courses will not hesitate to testify        in favor
    • One of the greatest benefits of SuperMemo        in learning is that building new knowledge often requires a solid        foundation. With a good foundation, new concepts easily slot in an make        a harmonious entirety. Contradictions and discrepancies are easily        located. The time invested in a good foundation will pay back manifold        in the course of passing years
      
    Point 3 - Success is based on posing rightquestions; not on knowing the answers
      Is it true that SuperMemo requires cramming  instead of reasoning?
      False!
      
       
    • The question-vs-answer dilemma is not        defined well-enough to be of philosophical challenge here! After all:        why ask the question if the answer is known. If we knew how to proceed        with cold fusion, why ask the question How?
    • Memorizing the answer as opposed to        understanding the ability to derive it cannot be rejected outright        either. It is obvious that it is better to learn to multiply rather than        memorize the product of all possible combination of numbers. Yet few        students are encouraged to derive formulas for finding the solutions to        quadratic equations each time they encounter such an equation. It is        simpler to memorize the formula than to derive it in need. It is only a        matter of balancing the cost and the benefit. The derivation may be        useful to mathematicians as a testing ground. An ordinary engineer will        rather recall the formula or even use a computer program
    • The ability to ask right questions is also based        on knowledge which has to be learned. A primary school student will        usually not be able to ask right questions about the origins of        the universe as the concept of the universe may be hard to grasp without        understanding the earth, the Solar System, the galaxies, distances        measured in light years, time measured in millions of lengths of human        life and zillions of lengths of a lunch break
    • Without relevant knowledge, you might        never ask the question in the first place! If you have no knowledge        about greenhouse gases and environmental degradation, why ask questions        about the greenhouse effect?
      
    Point 4a - Memory has an excellent ability toretain important information
      Is it true that our brain is extremely  effective in remembering knowledge that is important?
      False!
      
    • If this were true you would not tremble      before an exam and confusingly run through the notes to be sure that at      the zero hour you won\'t suffer from a proverbial blackout. At the      same time, you could easily recall details of a Schwarzenegger movie      seen last evening (or even weeks before the exam). Clearly, Arnie beats      the ups and downs of the Ottoman      Empire. And if you think the Ottoman Empire had much greater an impact      on humanity than the island shootout in Commando, you are still      likely to remember the muscle and the machine gun far better than the      timeline of the sultans
    • If this were true you would never have      problems with recalling the date of your mother-in-law\'s birthday -- a      piece of data often critical to your marital harmony
    • If this were true, you should instantly      forget the Olympic champions in football in Atlanta 1996 or Munich 1972.      After all this might be a classic case of unimportant knowledge. Yet few      Africans would forget how Nigeria beat Argentina 4:3 in 1996. Similarly,      few Poles would forget the most memorable moment in the history of Polish football: Olympic championship in Munich
      The truth is that we excellently remember only  things that are both easy to remember and repeated frequently enough. The  brain does not have an internal measure of importance (other than limited  volitional control or control via repeated exposure)! Your memory storage ruthlessly deletes  your career-critical knowledge with same ease as it ravages the traces of last  year\'s golf scores or contributing names listed at the end of a boring soap  opera.
      SuperMemo provides you with the ultimate pigeonhole for mission critical data.  What is in -- stays in your memory. What is out -- is free to go

    Point 4b - SuperMemo is useless! People have lived successfully forages without SuperMemo
      Is it true that Albert Einstein, Ivan Pavlov,  Norbert Wiener, or Adam Smith were successful enough to never have benefited  from spaced repetition in learning (i.e. SuperMemo)?
      False!
      
       
    • By analogy one could claim: The        Internet is useless! People have lived successful lives before the net.        All that thanks to their remarkable skills of verbal communication!
    • Einstein might have failed to step from        special to general theory of relativity had he been armed with extra        knowledge in physics or mathematics that would make his brain stick to        the beaten tract. Equally well, this additional knowledge might have        helped him arrive at grand unified theory. All pieces of knowledge in        our mind determine its ultimate response to questions posed. However,        the stronger your mindware, the greater the probability of generating        educated results
      
    Refutationbased of facts of science
    The short version of the SuperMemo Critic\'s thesis is: SuperMemo is useless.By using external references and posing the right questions we can besuccessful at problem solving using the traditional methods (i.e. without spacedrepetition in learning)
    All external sources of knowledge soreadily available to the author of the above thesis in the era of electroniccommunication, have not helped him accurately answer the question: IsSuperMemo useful?
    Had the author of the thesis kept five relativelysimple facts ofscience in his memory, he would not have arrived to his wrong conclusions. Ofthese five facts, three belong to well-established body of science and two tothe less-well-known body of knowledge related to repetition spacing. Any one of these should suffice torefute the thesis:
    • associative memory    (in computing    sciences known as content-addressable memory) is superior to standard random access memories    that are usually found in our desktop PCs. Human brain is based on neural    networks that belong to the associative memory category
    • evolution of the human brain has essentially    been completed before language skills and abstract thinking have developed.    The differences between the brains of early Homo sapiens from 200,000    years ago and present humans are in the context of this discussion insignificant
    • problem solving in artificial intelligence    can be used to mimic those mental faculties of a human    being that we associate with intelligence and creativity. There are many approaches to problem solving such as deduction, induction, abduction,    reasoning by analogy or probabilistic methods, neural networks approach,    searching in state space, and more. And even though some of these can    generate false conclusions or uncertain responses, they can all be expressed    by means of deductive methods such as those used in theorem proving in    mathematics. Deduction proceeds from axioms or premises    towards true formulas or assertions through logical derivation using valid inference rules.    The better the selection of assertions and the selection of inference rules,    the broader the reasoning capacity of an expert system or human brain. Rich inferential knowledge stored in our memory makes us    fast in thinking, creative, intelligent, efficient in problem solving, etc.    Yet we need factual knowledge as the raw processing material for derivation.    Even the creative vein and inspiration can be expressed in terms of    multithreaded    derivation and backtracking well formalized in logic programming. No magic fluids or reflections of the soul are involved here. Just a plain    network of firing neurons recovering the encoded patterns of facts and rules.    See also: Roots of creativity and genius
    • forgetting index in spaced repetition can be    used to optimize the trade-off between the knowledge acquisition rate and    knowledge retention
    • lifetime minimum cost of remembering a single    well-formulated piece of knowledge can easily be estimated to fall into the    range from 30 seconds to 5 minutes (minimum cost is the cost that is    achieved using the optimally spaced repetition schedule). This estimation    can be used in cost-benefit analysis in deciding which mission-critical    pieces of knowledge should be subject to learning based on spaced repetition
    Here is how the above facts influence our reasoning in reference to SuperMemo:
    • Associative memory - understanding    associative memory alone should decisively demonstrate the error in    the belief that we could use external memory as a crutch in reasoning. No    two facts or rules stored in two different books will come together to    produce a new quality. This can only happen inside the human mind. In the    future, artificial intelligence systems should also be able to do the same,    and only these will ultimately stand a chance to prove SuperMemo useless    (perhaps making human brain of little use at the same time).    All innovation in the history of science and technology is based on    association. Forgetful memory can be helped with external sources of    knowledge and each major scientific breakthrough is based on a series of    smaller steps, many of which will be based on hours of search,    trial-and-error and experimentation. However, none of those little steps    happens outside of the human mind. Hence the brain armed with extensive    knowledge is more likely to come up with a selected association than a brain    trained solely in scanning external references
    • Maladapted brain - the evolution of the    brain proceeds too slowly to have helped us adapt its structures to abstract    thinking. What was excellent for survival 200,000 years ago does not suffice    to process modern abstract knowledge. Simple computational tasks such as    multiplication or division proceed in a shamefully inefficient way in the    human mind. After all, early humans did not need to multiply. At the same time, no state-of-the-art computer can compete with    the visual cortex in pattern recognition and processing (although the brain    is just about to be beaten here as well)! Recognizing the    enemy or prey was critical not only for Homo sapiens but also for    birds, reptiles, fish or even insects. The only measure of the importance of    knowledge our brain synapses have at hand is the pattern of repetition,    levels of circulating hormones at the time of exposure, and a limited impact    of conscious attentive labeling of information as important at the moment of    encoding. Forgetting is needed to optimize knowledge storage; hence we have to forget    less important things. However, modern life has changed the hierarchy of    value and importance in the area of knowledge. The link between importance and repetition    has been severed. A flashy lingerie billboard we see every morning is not    likely to be more important than dozens of volatile facts pertaining to our    professional life. Regrettably, there is no circuit in our brain that would    let us consciously etch important memories: This is important! I must not    forget it! All we can do is to use the trick of reverberation or    mnemonic techniques which ... still will usually not last long unless we apply    spaced repetition (i.e. SuperMemo)
    • Derivation-vs-solution - we cannot    blindly assume that it is better to derive answers to problems than to    simply memorize the answers. It is always a matter of cost-vs-benefit. In    problems with multiple instances, we will tend to learn the derivation. For    example, it is easier to learn how to derive the third power of X than to    memorize all useful pairs: argument-result. On the other hand, most of    people memorize the multiplication table at the time when they could still    derive the result from bit-operations on binary numbers. Memorizing some 40    or so combinations seems more practicable, esp. that derivation always takes time    and we make use of the multiplication table thousands of times in a lifetime.    Here memorization saves hours and days in the lifetime perspective. Brain    armed with rich factual and inferential knowledge will associate the most    remote ideas and derive the most unexpected conclusions. Through a conscious    control over this rich reasoning process, we have built the present    civilization
    • Forgetting index     - traditional learning    (i.e. learning that is not based on spaced repetition) can easily be    compared to learning with a very high forgetting index (depending on the    field, extent of time, etc. this number might easily reach beyond 90%). This    fact shows that there is no sharp transition between retention in SuperMemo learning and    retention in non-SuperMemo learning. Consequently, the only question which might be asked    is What is the optimum forgetting index in learning? Is it closer to    the one used in SuperMemo (10% by default) or closer to traditional learning    (say 90%). The answer to this question will depend on a given student\'s    priorities and on a given piece of information! This is why SuperMemo    provides an individual forgetting index to all elements in a SuperMemo    collection. Mission-critical pieces can be remembered at a high repetition    cost with recall probability of 99%. Fringe knowledge can be stored with    retention 90%. NB: all users who tried to compare learning with the forgetting    index of 20% with the default 10% know from their own experience how    frustrating the repetitions in the former case can be. This is a reflection    of the traditional learning in a mild case! Only those who truly experienced    SuperMemo can testify to this
    • Cost of knowledge - each piece of    knowledge stored in SuperMemo contributes to the overall time expenditure.    Using well-formulated knowledge, we    can safely assume that a single element will be repeated from 8-20 times in    a lifetime. If a single repetition time is assumed to fall into the range from 3    seconds to 15 seconds, we could conclude that the expected lifetime cost of    a single item ranges from 24 seconds to 5 minutes. SuperMemo 99 adds a new    statistical measure called Cost.    It measures the total time cost of a single memorized element. In a    well-managed long-term learning process, this cost is usually detected at    2-3 minutes/item in a 10-year bracket. This is then more than the theoretical    prediction due to the fact that each collection contains a small subset of    so-called leeches which dramatically increase the average cost/item (note    that leeches can    easily be detected and removed from the    learning process).
          The only rational criterion for deciding if a piece of knowledge should be    memorized by means of SuperMemo is to judge the benefits of having the given    piece constantly available in memory. If the benefits do not seem to add up    to more than 10 minutes, the student might simply not add an item to SuperMemo.    An exemplary cost-benefit discussion of individual items can be found here: SuperMemo    as a new tool increasing the productivity of a programmer

    Conclusions
    In 1979, Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankstonintroduced the first killer app: VisiCalc. The precursor of Lotus\'s 1-2-3,Borland\'s Quattro Pro and the current leader: Microsoft\'s Excel. The programgained a relatively high recognition at its time due to the innovative andeasy-to-grasp concept popularly called a spreadsheet. Now VisiCalc isall but forgotten; however, it has for long remained a beacon of hope forwould-be software developers looking for the next killer app.
    When SuperMemo World was founded in 1991, itquickly attracted strong support from many who expected it to become the nextgreat killer application. Although it has ultimately reached the magic figure ofthe estimated one million users worldwide, it is far from being a typical killerapp. The reasons behind it are well illustrated in SuperMemo is useless e-mail.When Dan Brickling spoke about VisiCalc, he mentioned a factor of success thatis missing in SuperMemo: instant gratification. In his words: Any product that pays for itself in two weeks is a surefire winner.This is not the case with SuperMemo. SuperMemo does not pay for itselfeven in a month.
    When 21-year-old Mark Andreessen and his pal EricBina wrote their Mosaic and let it spread free over the Internet in 1993, theyset a new standard for a highly useful, easy-to-use and a fast spreadingsoftware application. The example of Mosaic remains a reference point tosoftware developers who would like to see their applications approach itsrecord-breaking levels of popularity.
    What sets Mosaic, VisiCalc, MS Word, and computergames apart from SuperMemo? We are all convinced that cultural barriers andeducational tradition are the greatest inhibitors of SuperMemo\'s furtherexpansion. Program\'s complexity also discourages many in the beginning. It is not the marketing outlays that make a difference here. Simpleand well-designed applications quickly raise to million-user figures in thepresent Internet-based software culture with widespread freeware, shareware, GNUand open source paths to success. SuperMemo freeware has always been out thereon the net, yet it never approached a fraction of popularity of such handy toolsas WinZip or AceReader. For ages, we all have been taught at school: Don\'tjust memorize it! Reason it out! This is why there is so much disdain forrepetitive learning. Time and again, we see reviews of SuperMemo in the press oron the net that miss the critical point: spaced repetition! Time and again, wehear from users that they tried the program years ago and did not like it thefirst time. Why do I have to grade myself? Why does the program not ask me tospell the answer using the keyboard? Clearly, SuperMemo ain\'t Mosaic.
    Yet, we take the obstacles in good part. Themission is: make the technology more popular. Make people understand it. This iswhy you can bet SuperMemo 2010 will offer qualities that we cannot even imaginetoday.
    In the past we have seen major blows given totechnology as a result of prejudice or ignorance. Florence issued an edict in1299 forbidding bankers to use Arabic numerals. The city council of Danzigordered the inventor of ribbon loom to be drowned in 1579. The print wasthreatened as well: book in the hands of masses can topple the king. Briskmind did not prevent Napoleon to temporarily abolish the decision to adopt themetric system in France (ironically, the US has ratified the Metric Conventionas early as in 1875). Did we not hear in the past that cars promote immorality,or radio will ruin the family life by eliminating conversation? Or that the webwill bring a global infobabble?
    It took a century to make a full use of the steam engine. It took yearsto make a good use of a telephone. Things went faster with electrification andautomobiles. Radio and TV were widespread within a generation. Education is thekey to such accommodations. Hence the positive feedback: we need more education,demand for education is conducive to SuperMemo, SuperMemo helps education, themore we know the more we know we do not know, and the self-propagating circle ofdemand closes.
    There is little acceptance today for thegenetically modified food, which is likely to revolutionize food science. Somepeople question the benefits of vaccination, which was the main contributor tothe dramatically increased life expectancy in the 20th century. Some even arewary of the Internet seen as a source of pornography and hatemongering.
    E-mail with the subject: SuperMemo is uselessis for us a good occasion to ponder over the future of spaced repetition inlearning. A small step towards the universal acceptance of the technology.

    USER COMMENTS
    We have sent a few dozen e-mails to the mostactive and vocal supporters of SuperMemo. This is why the comments below are inunanimous disagreement with SuperMemo Critic. Yet we realize the sample is notrepresentative and will post other interesting comments as soon as we receivethem
    We have shortened some texts, softened thelanguage, removed personal data and placed our short comments in square brackets
       
    Opinions favorable for SuperMemo
    User, student of law
    The difference between Person A and B is simple. Person Ahas knowledge. Person B does not have it. Person A as a researcher or physicianwill know all the basics (or more, depending on the patience in memorizingitems). Person B, as soon as his job gets complicated, will spend all his timesearching books
    One should also remember that time is a friend of a userof SuperMemo! The more you use the program, the less time you need forrepetitions of the same material
    The argument about 95% is ridiculous. What can I say? Apropos, if I am not mistaken, I read that Piotr Wozniak claims that retention of100% would be unbearable [this rather refers to the words of Russianpsychologist Luria who described a famous case study of a patient who could notforget and lived a confused life]
    Perfect memory of 50,000 answers in SuperMemo will let youask 10,000 new questions. The greater the clearing the greater the perimeter (notabene, this item I know from Advanced English). Why ask questions if we cannotanswer? If you do not need better knowledge for the good of science or to getrich or for self-satisfaction, drop the program and do not waste other people\'stime
    It is true that people were successful before SuperMemo.But they can be yet more successful with SuperMemo! I have the followingplan: when I graduate, I will look for a well-paid job for a lawyer inconsulting companies (they pay big money!). My GPA is rather average but I amready to take on any candidate for good morning! They are looking for someonewho is good now, not in the future. Most students does not have a clue ofwhat they crammed 1-2 years ago! In my junior year, I have 10,000 items in law,and I can beat anyone. Who do you think the employers would prefer? The one withgood GPA or the one who can sing law?
    If you cram knowledge with SuperMemo during universitystudies, you can later get back your time. You can even spend it for fun andpleasures. Knowledge is your security
    Distributor of SuperMemo
    Why waste time with this? Thereare many reasons that this is nonsense ... as long as you do not learn the wrongstuff. But for learning vocabulary, basic facts you need for your exams or yourjob, they can be learnt very well with SuperMemo. And if you do not have thebasic command of the area in question (language, scientific area, etc) then youwill not be able to look the missing detail up, because there will be no missingdetail. There will be no basis for asking the question.....
    I think you better forget this silly letter and carry onwith more serious stuff
    User, student of law
    I think, true value of SuperMemo is hard work - peraspera ad astra. Sometimes we don\'t have enough time to look up those factsin 30 seconds. We have only 5 seconds to make a right choice. I once wondered:\"Does SuperMemo increase the capacity of human brain?\" I think itdoes.
    If we are doing something and we have 95 true answers - Idon\'t need more. I want to have such effects. If you can\'t ask the rightquestions it is better to know right answers than knowing nothing.
    Of course, I agree with the last sentence. \"SuperMemomay be good for memorizing a bunch of useless trivia to show off in front ofother people\". It may be - but it needn\'t be
    User, student of economics
    I think some knowledge gained with SuperMemo is necessaryto make the search for information possible. Without this knowledge, allinformation about the present world would be some incomprehensible code. We needsome basis for judgment!
    For me, keeping knowledge in my head is a source ofsatisfaction. I just do not want to waste time on searches. I like to have it\"handy\". Neither Person A nor B are ideal. I would like to be Person Cwho keeps all necessary and solid basics in memory and is also able toefficiently search for necessary information from outside. Life is not black andwhite and those two persons are not taken from reality
    And please show me a program that is more effective thanSuperMemo! 95% is not a failure but a success. 19 questions remembered in 20 isa good result to me
    The problem of knowing answers or asking the rightquestions is strange. We need both the ability to ask questions and to produceaccurate answers. This point compares chalk to cheese
    I will also not comment on \"successful lives withoutSuperMemo\". It would be a scholastic discussion of a blind with a deafabout sound and pictures in movies. The reasoning error should be obvious toevery reasonable person
    User, mathematician
    This all reminds me a statement What for to learnanything at the time when it all gets outdated before we start our job? Formany, the best method of studying is: cram for the exam, pass the exam andforget. The point on posing right questions is interesting. However, SuperMemoshould help ask the right question, shouldn\'t it?
    User, programmer
    Some kind of knowledge may be so chaotic, and change somuch that the only way to manage it would be using a forgetting index of 50%(what would be the same thing as not using SuperMemo). [actually,reducing the forgetting index for hard material may make thinks worse bydestroying the semantic fabric of the learned material -- one of advantages ofSuperMemo is to help you retain a coherent picture of the entire material inyour memory!] However, whenever things get sohard, you can focus on a single part of the knowledge and use a divide andconquer approach. This is how science develops nowadays. Nobody can try tomaster Physics, Art, Astronomy, Chemistry, Math, etc. like Leonardo da Vinci
    The matter of knowledge access is: who said it would be 30seconds? If you have forgotten that trigonometric calculus formula, would itreally take 30 seconds to retrieve it? If you forget that special computerlanguage statement (that you have found only in one magazine...) would youreally retrieve that in 30 seconds? Also, with a very big sum of 30 secondsoperations you can really lose hours of productivity. There is a Delphicase of study at supermemo.com that shows that
    About knowing all the answers: If you know really nothingabout Quantum Physics, what is your chance of coming up with a really usefulidea in this area?
    I believe SuperMemo is the most powerful non-invasive toolfor developing declarative memory (invasive tools are not yet there either). Thevery use of it shows us some facts that shock us, like how unreliable our memoryis, or how much work is necessary to maintain knowledge, specially nowadays,that we have computers with much better memory abilities widely available forcomparison. But it is not really a problem of SuperMemo but from our natureitself, and SuperMemo is yet the best tool for overcoming this problem. WhatSuperMemo doesn\'t do is to prepare collection for us, select the knowledge,choose what is important... It is all up to us. The task of preparing acollection, of judging what is important and what is not is also enormous...Perhaps we may even feel that it is not worth... (I remember how many times Iterribly wanted to have one collection with the matter I wanted but it was notavailable). I believe this feeling about a new technology is very natural. Forinstance, we humans always wanted to fly like birds. Now, we can take oneairplane and \"fly\", much faster and longer than any bird. However, westill get the feeling about wanting to \"fly like a bird\", with grace,security and individually
    User, programmer
            I find this type of article motivational for keeping onwith my methods. […] I attribute much of my success to SuperMemo. The amountcharged for the program is laughable given the benefit\'s I\'ve gained. It\'s luckyfor me that you don\'t charge a percentage of my pay increases! See: How        I got a job at #1 software company?
    User, student of computer science
    Interesting letter!
    Information could be accessed in 30 sec, but it could notbe found in 30 sec. For some information, I have been surfing for 1-2 days(maybe even weeks).
    About 95% retention: It reminds me how a pessimist and anoptimist look at a half-empty glass of water
    SuperMemo helps in \"keeping facts remembered\".Program that helps in deciding what is useful and what is not useful, does notexists, and I think it will not be found
    P.S. This letter looks to me like joke
          
      

    User contributions
    AGAINST SUPERMEMOFOR SUPERMEMO
    5 years later
    SuperMemoCritic had these comments to this article:
      Negating something is a fundamental way of verifying  it. These four arguments are about the best I can do for now in the way of  negating SuperMemo. If you can pulverize them, your program will have  withstood the challenge. If somebody then uses these arguments, you will be  prepared to fend them off. Your article can forestall the enemy\'s move in that  direction.
      By 2005, SuperMemo Critic has amazingly become closely  involved in promoting SuperMemo on the Internet. He also uses SuperMemo  for learning foreign language vocabulary


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    2016-9-30 22:04
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    [LV.5]常住居民I

    flyinghss 发表于 2011-4-5 19:47:21 | 显示全部楼层
    本帖最后由 flyinghss 于 2011-4-5 19:48 编辑

    mark,个人感觉sm有没有用很大程度取决于词库和是否坚持。

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    [LV.5]常住居民I

    maxsun 发表于 2011-4-7 09:11:53 | 显示全部楼层
    本帖最后由 maxsun 于 2011-4-7 09:20 编辑

    手机版   没有比较的前提下, 或许是很不错的
    已经用了近2周了,很频繁的. 和预期的差距很远, 无论怎么操作, 不会的词依然半天见不到, 特别是对哪些不会的词即时做了单独记忆的, 估计见到的时候已经忘记得干干净净了.
    而那个null又找不到快键键, 手不方便, 只能用笔戳,
    难道使用技巧很难掌握  
    遗憾的是, 商业化如果高的话, 国内应该有不错的手机版

    点评

    用了近2周,还看不到不会的词?你指的是那些被你评分在2以下的单词吗?  发表于 2011-4-7 17:31
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    [LV.5]常住居民I

    maxsun 发表于 2011-4-7 21:46:53 | 显示全部楼层
    本帖最后由 maxsun 于 2011-4-9 15:59 编辑

    谢谢 舍得点评

    我可能描述得不是很清楚, 我是指评分为fail和bad的,也包括很少部分的null(因为选此项操作不方便,较少用)
    既然是没有记住或忘记或记错的, 且在巩固的时候也选bad(专门把bad映射到了一个方便的键位,初期是fail的位置,发现fail的词几乎不再出现了,才换为bad),为的就是好让这些词紧接着频繁出现,好让给记住后升到good级别. 然而至今还体验不到.

    去年曾借助软件记过词条数约近1w, 并非全是单词,也包括词组句子根缀和非英语类, 但是大概只能维持到1---2月见到还记得的状态,同时大概会有约20%的记不准记错忘记的,之后找不到合适的工具来管理,导致只能重新全复习词库,但是时间真不够用,几乎被动放弃, 导致很多又逐步过渡到半忘记状态.......

    寄希望于sm后,专为PPC sm 买了一个2.8屏幕的全键盘wm手机, 从选机型到搜罗卖家大概3个礼拜出头的时间, 用sm到第2天的时候,就开始只要不完全正确的词均按bad, 至今2个礼拜了几乎天天频繁用, 感觉软件对记住的词进行特定间隔复习或许有独到之处(用时太短还没有体会到), 但是对于没有达到good级别之前的记忆效果,真的感觉是"太差",对这样大名鼎鼎的软件真有些不愿也不敢如此轻率评价, 不过在网络好似也有类似感受,极少.  不过这时间成本实在太高了,如果真的是其突击效果相对不强的话. 一个半月如果不复习专记生词条,可2000个左右,到1---2月不忘状态, 如定心纯复习估计也可以拾回来不少.

    good级别之前感觉像孩童期, 之后加上大量内容因素感觉像对18岁后成年人的帮助.认为两者一样重要.

    所以, 目前只能认为自己还没有掌握sm使用技巧了.但愿对大量内容的管理水平能符合其大名.

    经过一天的疯狂搜索,好似基本确认这间隔"小缺陷"(甚至被针对性的改善于其他手机系统版本), 还有我也遇到几次的非正常关机数据快捷键问题等等,

    不过, 优点n箩筐就不用说了, 仅即时词库编辑处理就好似暂无人能及.

    希望SM后期处理能力可以帮到更多人,

    新手遇到上述疑问也可以参考下针对性处理, 常退出,常备份,记住之前可采用其他尽可能多的辅助方式.

    两个随手贴如有不当之处, 请版主立删除.



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    [LV.6]常住居民II

     楼主| 舍得 发表于 2011-4-9 16:21:40 | 显示全部楼层
    ”去年曾借助软件记过词条数约近1w“,我不知道你这个”记过“的概念是作何讲,在SM中,如果你长期坚持复习下来,当不会是”去年曾“怎样怎样学习的这么一种状态。我可以和你分享一下舍得和SM的更多使用者的经验,记一份材料(比如说一份5K词汇的词汇表),仅仅是”记过“是远远不够的,至少每个词汇在复习6轮以上,这个词汇才会不大容易忘记,一份5K词汇的材料,复习6轮,有可能是需要半年左右的时间。如果大多数生词你只复习了两三轮,并且复习时也没有用心去”储存“这个词汇的话,一两个月之后忘掉那是太正常了。SuperMemo是一个非常不错的工具,但它不是”神器“,它可以帮助你减少学习所用的时间,却能使效率更高,但不等于你随便用用就能取得良好的成果。没有大量的练习,一切仍是空谈。
    ”没有达到good级别之前的记忆效果太差“。复习效果的好坏,一要看有无按照SuperMemo安排的复习间隔认真去复习,二要看在复习过程中有没有用心。重点在于后者。舍得所说的用心是指下意识地去使用一些记忆技巧来提升效果。此外要注意的是,比较记忆效果切勿犯了”关公战秦琼“之类的错误,你拿一个生词同一个本来很熟的词去比较它俩之间的记忆速度,这个比较本身就有着太多搞笑的成份。
    其它的观点暂时就不一一评论了。
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    [LV.5]常住居民I

    超级赛亚人 发表于 2011-4-9 16:56:38 | 显示全部楼层
    提示: 作者被禁止或删除 内容自动屏蔽
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    [LV.3]偶尔看看II

    nounqueen 发表于 2011-4-9 20:47:20 | 显示全部楼层
    一直搞不明白是一下子全学完然后慢慢复习有用,还是一天一点点的学习按照repetition来复习有效果。
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    [LV.5]常住居民I

    maxsun 发表于 2011-4-9 20:53:16 | 显示全部楼层
    回复 舍得 的帖子

    记过指: 应该为艾宾浩斯的规律, 当天若干一些间隔,然后大概1,2天,1周左右,2周左右等, 具体的不清楚. 可以基本确定这没问题的, 否则, 短期内绝暂记不了那么多(自己感觉的, 个人基础薄弱,工作10年以上,学校时3级未过, 背词前仍算掌握的不超过1千词包括pig,bag类的初中词,一篇文章看下来80%多不认识.)

    正是因为后期没有合适的工具才搜索到并在最近转到SM.

    目前只是不太熟悉SM,如果认为不好,第3天就放弃了.至于小缺陷,应该说世上本没有十全十美的.
    至于词汇熟悉程度比较我自己也很糊涂,曾认为一度"走火入魔": 最初网络当下一个小词表1千多所谓核心词, 后才感到,有些仅只有1个延伸意, 大多1两个词义, 尽管绝不敢拿词义太多的字典背 , 但由于被一时的过渡自信窃喜所迷惑, 之后凡见到需要查字典的均往词库里添加其没记录的内容, 一个本来熟悉的词逐步变成意记不全或不准的, 多的词义10几个, 这个自认为入魔的过程持续2个月左右,后赶紧止住了. 所以感受到, 对于一个基础不太好的同学来说, 词库准备尤为重要最好加上词频, 毕竟眼下大多为应试学习或教育,,否则也会出现5千词背了,见到都认识, 结果试题摆面前, 还发现不识的一堆堆...

    再次 谢谢舍得
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    [LV.3]偶尔看看II

    nounqueen 发表于 2011-4-9 20:54:33 | 显示全部楼层
    觉得我花在supermemo上的时间太多了。
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    [LV.5]常住居民I

    maxsun 发表于 2011-4-9 20:59:58 | 显示全部楼层
    回复 超级赛亚人 的帖子

    超级赛亚人啊.
    终于恢复信心了, 深表谢意.
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